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When combined with madder dye, the cloth obtained colors that remained bright when washed.See Homage to Kalamkari (Marg Publications: Bombay, 1979); Judith Jerde, Encyclopedia of Textiles (New York, 1992), Mattiebelle Gittinger, Master Dyers to the World: Technique and Trade in Early Indian Dyed Cotton Textiles (Washington, DC, 1982); Kathy Bowrey, Art, Craft, Good Taste and Manufacturing: The Development of Intellectual Property Laws, Law in Context 15 (1997): For these figures see Bennet Bronson, An Industrial Miracle in a Golden Age: The Seventeenth Century Cloth Exports of India, Field Museum Bulletin 54 (1983): 12 34; Michel Morineau, The Indian Challenge: Seventeenth Century to Eighteenth Century, in Merchants, Companies and Trade, ed.Alonso Dámaso (Madrid, 1963), 279; Josep Fontana, La fi de l Antic Règim i la Industrialització ( ) (Barcelona, 1988), 37.Between 17, Catalonia went from 500,000 inhabitants to 900,000; Jaume Torras Elias, The Old and the New: Marketing Networks and Textile Growth in Eighteenth-Century Spain, in Markets and Manufactures in Early Industrial Europe, ed. Braudel, Wheels of Commerce, 2: 401 2, In Spain, the General Board of Trade, or Junta General de Comercio, with its Barcelona branch, the Junta de Comerç (in Catalan), first established in 1692 and reestablished in 1758, was in charge of regulating trade and commercial activities.Fuentes para su estudio, América Latina en la Historia Econónica 9 (1998): Isabel Lobato Franco, Compañías y negocios en la Cataluña preindustrial: Barcelona (Sevilla, 1995), Braudel, Wheels of Commerce, 2: For these practices among English calico firms, see Alfred Wadsworth and Julia De Lacy Mann, The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, (Manchester, 1931), An eighteenth-century observer reported that in Malta, it is distressing to see so many young people going into a business which swallows up perhaps the previously untouched dowry of their wives, or their parents inheritance, quoted in Braudel, Wheels of Commerce, 2: It happened to Petronila Vene in Cádiz.She was married to the merchant Joaquín Vicente Noely, who in 1754 legally appointed her general administrator of all his goods while he was away.Thomson has demonstrated that governmental intervention in manufacture during the eighteenth century contributed to increasing the demand for calicoes; see Thomson, Distinctive Industrialization. According to the historian Peter Miller, sea trade was the main ground upon which the survival of an empire was decided; Peter Miller, Defining the Common Good: Empire, Religion and Philosophy in 124 N otes Eighteenth-Century Britain (Cambridge, 1994), , quoted in Anthony Pagden, Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France, c c (New Haven, 1995), 116.Chapter 1 Family and the Calico Trade in the Spanish Empire 1. Dávila Corona, Montserrat Duran Pujol, and Máximo García Fernández, Diccionario histórico de telas y tejidos (Salamanca, 2004), 62, 133, Indian families of artisans achieved such bright colors by applying mordant, the chemical mixture that fixed the design in the fabric.

Malta also exported cotton cloth and printing experts to Catalonia.The entire process required only basic, easily available tools: warping devices, looms, printing molds and tables, dyeing vats, and a bleaching meadow to dry the cloth.Fabricants made the colors in the color room, presumably a part of the factory where dyes were stored. On foreign skills in the Spanish calico industry, see Agustí Nieto-Galan, Dyeing, Calico Printing, and Technical Exchanges in Spain: The Royal Manufactures and the Catalan Textile Industry, , in Natural Dyestuffs and Industrial Culture in Europe, , ed. 233, July 24, 1737 fols In this document, Serra was asking for the privilege (facultad) to use a bleaching field in Sant Martí de Provençals for five years, quoted in Thomson, Distinctive Industrialization, ACA Batllia Moderna Vol.Maxine Berg and Helen Clifford (Manchester, 1999), Ephrain Lipson, The Economic History of England, 3 vols.(London, 1934), 3: Prince Butler s Tale: Representing the State of the Wool-Case, or the East-India Case Truly States (1699), quoted in ibid., 3: Daniel Defoe, Weekly Review (1708), quoted in Baines, History of the Cotton Manufacture, Claudius Rey, The Weavers True Case, or the Wearing of Printed Calicoes and Linen Destructive to the Woollen and Silk Manufactures (1719), quoted in Lipson, Economic History of England, 3: Chapman and Chassagne, European Textile Printers, Quoted in Fernand Braudel, The Wheels of Commerce: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th 18th Century, trans. (New York, 1982), 2: Jacques Savary des Bruslons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, vol. Thomson, Marketing Channels and Structures in Spain in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century: Two 126 N otes Contrasting Cases, in Echanges et cultures textiles dans l Europe pré-industrielle, ed.

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